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1999 Annual Report 

The Air Pollution Control Program produces an annual report to provide Missouri residents 
information about the status of air quality in the state. The publication is made available here in 
electronic format. The publication is divided into chapters for quicker download. 

Cover Page (05/00) 48 KB 
Regional and Satelite Offices (05/00) 623 KB 
Introduction and Table of Contents (05/00) 24 KB 

Land | Air 


Chapter 1 
Chapter 2 
Chapter 3 
Chapter 4 
Chapter 5 
Chapter 6 
Chapter 7 

1999 Air Quality Highlights (05/00) 71 KB 

A Quarter Century in Retrospect (05/00) 39 KB 

Major Air Pollutants (05/00) 26 KB 

Clean Air Standards (05/00) 51 KB 

Air Quality Monitoring Sites in Missouri (05/00) 813 KB 

Missouri's Air Quality (05/00) 108 KB 

Ozone in Missouri (05/00) 19 KB 

o Ozone in St. Louis (05/00) 57 KB 
o Ozone in Kansas City (05/00) 63 KB 

Chapter 8: Lead in Missouri (05/00) 83 KB 

Chapter 9: About the Air Pollution Control Program (05/00) 25 KB 

Chapter 10: Missouri Air Conservation Commission (05/00) 47 KB 

Air Quality Information (Telephone Numbers) (05/00) 19 KB 

Air Pollution Information on the Internet (05/00) 11 KB 

Glossary (05/00) 13 KB 

Photo Credits (05/00) 48 KB > 

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Department of 
Natural Resources 

P.O. Box 176, Jefferson City, MO 65102 
800-361 -4827 / 573-751 -481 7 
Revised on Monday July 05 2010 



Missouri Department of Natural Resources 
Division of Environmental Quality 



Kansas City Regional Office 
500 NE Colbern Rd 
Lee's Summit, MO 64086-4710 
(816) 554-4100 
FAX: (816) 554-4142 

Northeast Regional Office 
1709 Prospect Dr. Ste. A 
Macon, MO 63552-2602 
(660) 385-2129 
FAX: (660) 385-6398 

Mississippi River Project Office 
Wakonda State Park 
Rt 1 Box 242 
LaGrange, MO 63448 

Kansas City 

Jefferson City Regional Office 
210 Hoover Rd. 
P.O. Box 176 

Jefferson City, MO 65102-0176 
(573) 751-2729 
FAX: (573) 751-0014 

Lake of the Ozarks Satellite Office 
Camden County 
5568 A Hwy 54 
Osage Beach, Mo 65065 
(573) 348-2442 

St. Louis Regional Office 
10805 Sunset Office Drive 
St. Louis, MO 63127-1017 
(314) 301-7100 
FAX: (314) 301-7107 

Lincoln County Satellite Office 
Cuivre River State Park 
678 State Rt. 147 
Troy, MO 63379 
Louis ( 636 ) 528-4779 

Franklin County Satellite Office 
Meramec State Park 
Hwy 185 S. 
Sullivan, MO 63080 
(573) 860-4308 

Jefferson County Satellite Office 
Eastern District Parks Office 
Hwy 61 

Festus, MO 63028 
) 937-3697 

Neosho / Joplin Area Satellite Office 
1900 S. 71 Highway 
Neosho, MO 64850 
(417) 455-5155 

Mailing address: 2040 W. Woodland 
Springfield, MO 65807-5912 

Southwest Regional Office 
2040 W. Woodland 
Springfield, MO 65807-5912 
(417) 891-4300 
FAX: (417) 891-4399 

Taney / Stone County Satellite Office 
Table Rock State Park 
2037 State Hwy 1 65 
Branson, MO 65616 
(417) 337-9732 

Southeast Regional Office 
948 Lester Street 
P.O. Box 1420 

Poplar Bluff, MO 63901-1420 
(573) 840-9750 
FAX: (573) 840-9754 


Table of 

1999 Air 

Quality Highlights 2 

Missouri Air: 

A Quarter Century 

in Retrospect 6 

Major Air 

Pollutants 8 

Health Effects 

of Air Pollution 9 

Clean Air 

Standards 10 

Air Quality 

Monitoring Sites 

in Missouri 12 


Air Quality 14 

Ozone in Missouri 16 

Ozone in St. Louis 
Controlling St. Louis Ozone 
Ozone in Kansas City 

Controlling Kansas City Ozone 

Lead in Missouri 22 

PM25 in Missouri 24 

About the 

Air Pollution 

Control Program 25 

Missouri Air 
Commission 27 

Air Quality 

Information 30 

Air Pollution 

on the Internet 31 

Glossary 32 

He steps up to the plate, his jaw set firmly. Tens of thousands watch quietly as he 
lifts the heavy bat, waiting for that powerful swing. He takes a deep breath 
before launching the tiny sphere into orbit. CRACK! 

Missouri's air sustains us in everything we do. Whether working in a garden, 
waiting for a bus or hitting homeruns, clean air provides us life energy. The 
Missouri Department of Natural Resources' (DNR) Air Pollution Control 
Program (APCP) continues to look for new ways to improve the quality of air for 
Missouri's residents. 

As Missouri begins a new millennium, 

APCP will once again rely upon the support 
of citizens, businesses, industry and federal, 
state and local governments to keep the air 
clean for all Missouri's residents. APCP 
hopes that you will continue monitoring 
rules and legislation regarding air pollution, 
and contact us when you have questions 
and concerns. It is also important that 
citizens inform DNR of unusual odors, 
emissions or smoke. To provide clean air 
across the state, it will take an active 
involvement by all Missouri citizens. 
Through regular tune-ups, use of low- 
solvent products, composting of yard waste 
and proper disposal of waste that cannot be 
composted, each person's contribution is 

multiplied. Equally important, we must 
learn to use energy more efficiently. Energy 

consumption is directly related to most air quality problems. The more gasoline 
and electricity we use, the greater the burden we place on our air. 

Missouri's air quality has experienced a steady rate of improvement over the last 
decade. To continue this positive trend into the next millennium, Missouri will also 
have to balance the needs of the environment with the needs of industry. The state 
must examine ways to promote economic growth without compromising air 
quality, which means improvements will need to be made within existing industry. 
Missouri and the industrial community will have to work together to clean the air. 

Everyone has a stake in keeping Missouri's air clean, and everyone can 
participate in accomplishing this goal. The next time your favorite powerhouse 
hitter fills his lungs, let's make sure it's with clean Missouri air. 

As a recipient of federal funds, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources does not discriminate on the basis of 
race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or disability. Any person who believes he or she has suffered 
discrimination may file a complaint with the Department of Natural Resources or with the Office of Equal 
Opportunity, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., 20240. 

999 Air Quality Highlig 

Development of 

Involving the public in the process of 
making air quality rules helps to 
create fair, effective regulations that 
have broad support. In 1999, DNR 
continued its commitment to public 
participation by convening work- 
groups to help develop air 
regulations. A workgroup brings 
industry and the public together with 
government agencies to share 
concerns and exchange ideas while 
developing regulations. 

The Construction Permit Streamlin- 
ing Workgroup continued improving 
the Construction Permit Regulations 
and reviewing the internal proce- 
dures and policy for the program to 
review permit applications. After 
receiving recommendations, the Mis- 
souri Air Conservation Commission 
adopted the proposed amendment 
to the construction permit rule on 
July 29, 1999. 

The department worked with leaders 
from industry, environmental organi- 
zations and local government to 
improve air quality in the Kansas 
City area. In June, DNR participated 
in the Kansas City Fuels Summit. 
Discussion focused on determining a 
motor vehicle fuel strategy to 
improve air quality in the Kansas 
City ozone maintenance area, which 
includes Johnson and Wyandotte 
counties in Kansas; and Clay, Jackson 
and Platte counties in Missouri. 


DNR continues to develop ways for 
St. Louis and Kansas City to reduce 
emissions of volatile organic 

compounds (VOCs) that contribute to 
the formation of ground-level ozone 
(smog). St. Louis is required to 
reduce VOCs due to its status as an 
ozone nonattainment area, while the 
Kansas City reductions are in 
response to violations of the ozone 
standard in 1995 and 1997. 

In the St. Louis area, recovery of 
gasoline vapors at fuel pumps is one 
of the most effective ways to reduce 
VOC emissions. DNR developed the 
Missouri Performance Evaluation 
Test Procedures (MOPETP), a 
comprehensive set of tests designed 
to determine the efficiency of gasoline 
vapor recovery systems and compo- 
nents. In 1999, five manufacturers of 
gasoline dispensing equipment were 
either testing or preparing to partici- 
pate in the MOPETP program. All 
gasoline dispensing facilities must 
have a MOPETP approved vapor 
recovery system installed in order to 
continue operation after Jan. 1, 2001. 

DNR also continued the operating 
permit program for gas stations in the 
St. Louis area. The program requires 
vapor recovery equipment to be 
tested to assure it is functioning prop- 
erly. About 980 active stations in the 
St. Louis ozone nonattainment area 
are subject to the operating permit 
rule. The initial permits were 
completed by Jan. 1, 1999. 

Based on the proceedings of the St. 
Louis Fuel Summit held in 1998 and 
the governor's formal request to the 
U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA), federal Reformulated 
Gasoline (RFG) was required at retail 
gasoline stations in the St. Louis 
ozone nonattainment area beginning 


June 1, 1999. RFG has a gasoline 
formula designed to burn cleaner 
than conventional gasoline. RFG is 
required all year, not just during the 
summer. RFG reduces exhaust emis- 
sions as well as evaporative 
emissions and is administered and 
enforced by the EPA. In 1999, RFG 
requirements included a minimum 15 
percent reduction in both VOC emis- 
sions and air toxic emissions 
compared to conventional gasoline. 
The requirements also prohibited any 
increase in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) 
emissions. Phase II of the RFG 
program begins Jan. 1, 2000, and 
requires additional reductions in 
VOC and air toxic emissions as well 
as NOx emission reductions. 

In 1999, the use of low Reid vapor 
pressure (RVP) gasoline was an 
important component of VOC emis- 
sion reduction in Kansas City. During 
summer months, low RVP gasoline 
evaporates less than conventional 
gasoline, which reduces emissions of 
VOCs. Low RVP gas was first 
required in St. Louis in 1994 and in 
Kansas City in 1997. Low Reid vapor 
pressure gasoline was used in Kansas 
City from June 1 to Sept. 15, 1999. 

Following the Kansas City Fuel 
Summit, on July 28, 1999, the gover- 
nors of both Missouri and Kansas 
submitted letters requesting that the 
EPA require federal Reformulated 
Gasoline (RFG) for the Kansas City 
ozone maintenance area. However, a 
lawsuit was filed against the EPA 
blocking the use of federal RFG in 
former nonattainment areas, 
including Kansas City. 

Gateway Clean Air 

Efforts to bring St. Louis into attain- 
ment with the EPA's ozone 
regulations shifted gears in 1999 with 

the launch of the Gateway Clean Air 
Program (GCAP). The new emis- 
sions testing program is an important 
component in Missouri's ongoing 
effort to ensure clean air in the St. 
Louis area. In 1994, high levels of air 
pollution in St. Louis prompted the 
Missouri General Assembly to change 
the vehicle emissions testing 
program. Beginning in 2000, vehicles 
in St. Louis City and St. Louis, St. 
Charles and Jefferson Counties will 
be using a new enhanced emissions 
testing program. For the first time, 
Franklin County will begin using an 
improved basic idle emissions test. 

DNR contracted with Environmental 
Systems Products Inc. (ESP Missouri), 
to implement GCAP. ESP Missouri 
will construct and operate the new 
vehicle emissions testing facilities 
and also operate remote sensing 
monitors. Facility construction began 
in 1999. These new facilities will 
begin testing vehicles in April 2000. 
Motorists will also have the opportu- 
nity to have their vehicles tested by 
remote sensing RapidScreen in early 
2000. More information on GCAP is 
available in the Controlling St. Louis 
Ozone section on page 19. 

Ozone Transport 

Because air pollution can spread 
across geographic boundaries, initia- 
tives involving regional cooperation 
and study of air quality are becoming 
more common. In October 1998, the 
EPA issued a rule that would require 
Missouri to reduce emissions of NOx, 
which is a commonly transported air 
pollutant contributing to ozone 
formation. In 1998, DNR began 
development of regulations to 
comply with the EPA's regional NOx 
control plan. These regulations would 
affect utilities, cement kilns and other 
large industrial activities. The U.S. 

Court of Appeals has issued a stay of 
implementation for these rules. 

Litigation Blocks Eight- 
Hour Standard 

New federal standards adopted in 
1997 to reduce ground-level ozone 
were blocked by litigation in 1999. 
The new ozone standard, known as 
the eight-hour standard, would have 
reduced allowable ozone concentra- 
tions from 0.12 parts per million 
averaged over a one-hour period to a 
standard of 0.08 parts per million 
averaged over an eight-hour period. 
Under this new standard, attainment 
would have been determined based 
upon an average of three years of the 
fourth highest annual daily 
maximum eight-hour concentration. 

In 1997, states began gathering data 
for the EPA eight-hour standard. The 
EPA was scheduled to assign area 
designations in 2000 based on the new 
eight-hour standard, although the 
one-hour standard was still to be in 
effect in areas that had not attained it. 

However, in May 1999, a three-judge 
panel in the District of Columbia 
Circuit Court determined that the 
EPA did not have authority to imple- 
ment this more stringent standard. In 
October 1999, the U.S. Court of 
Appeals for the District of Columbia 
Circuit denied the EPA's request for a 
rehearing on this decision. The EPA 
plans to appeal the decision to the 
U.S. Supreme Court. As 1999 closed, 
the EPA proposed to reinstate the 
one-hour ozone standard to ensure 
that some type of control would 
remain in place. The eight-hour stan- 
dard is still being reported so that the 
EPA can keep the public informed 
regarding air quality in their area, 
although the standard can't be imple- 
mented until a resolution is reached. 


Construction Permits 
Issued by Air Pollution 
Control Program 1990-1999 

1200 | 1 



90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 

Operating Permits 

Missouri's Operating Permit Unit 
remained one of the nation's permit 
leaders. In 1999, the unit's focus 
turned to issuing Part 70 (major) 
permits. The unit issued 102 Part 70 
permits, eight Intermediate permits 
and 82 Basic permits. In 1999, 
Missouri issued more major source 
operating permits than any other 
state in our EPA region. Missouri 
ranks in the top third of all permit- 
ting agencies in the number of 
permits issued. 

Construction Permits 

Among the 1134 construction permit 
actions completed in 1999, notable 
major level permits were issued for 
Fort Leonard Wood, Empire District 
Electric in Joplin, the Associated Elec- 
tric St. Francis Power Plant, and the 
Utilicorp United Power Plant in 
Pleasant Hill. 

Fort Leonard Wood 

In October 1999, the APCP issued a 
Prevention of Significant Deteriora- 
tion (PSD) permit to Fort Leonard 
Wood and the U.S. Army Engineer 
Center in Pulaski County. This permit 
allows Fort Leonard Wood to include 
the sources related to the Base 
Realignment and Closure activities 
that were not incorporated into the 
original permit. This permit also 
provides additional flexibility in 
training personnel with respect to 
meteorological conditions, or days of 
training, and the use of alternative 
equipment to generate fog. 

APCP received the permit application 
in November 1998. The program 
completed preliminary review of the 
project on July 25, 1999. After 
reviewing comments from the public, 
the PSD permit was issued on Oct. 1, 
1999. The final modeling analysis for 

the project showed no exceedances 
of the PMio National Ambient 
Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 
particulate matter less than 10 
microns in diameter. 

The Missouri Coalition for the Envi- 
ronment appealed the new Fort 
Leonard Wood PSD permit on Oct. 
28, 1999. The appeal was referred to 
the Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission and the appeal process 
is proceeding. 

Enforcement Actions 
and Results 

The Air Pollution Control Program 
performed 1,544 stationary source 
inspections in the 1999 calendar year. 
The program also issued 1,135 
Notices of Violation (NOVs) in 1999. 
Settlements were reached in 146 
cases. These settlements resulted in 
paid penalties of $261,418 and 
suspended penalties totaling 
$264,315. The department referred 22 
cases to the Attorney General's office. 

Charcoal Kilns 

In July 1999, initial tests showed that 
significant progress has been made in 
reducing emissions from charcoal 
kilns. After decades of dense, moist, 
choking smoke rising up from more 
than 229 charcoal kilns in Missouri, 
control devices are being put in place 
to reduce these emissions. 

In March 1998, after months of nego- 
tiations between DNR, the EPA and 
the charcoal industry, the Missouri 
Air Conservation Commission 
MACC) adopted a regulation to 
phase in controls of charcoal kiln 
smoke. This regulation requires each 
charcoal production facility to install 
afterburners on at least two kilns 
every year, or remove these kilns 
from production. The four largest 

- 4 - 

charcoal companies were required to 
install more controls on an acceler- 
ated schedule. 

Royal Oak Enterprises built the first 
charcoal kiln afterburners and 
installed them at their plant near 
Mountain View. The first one was 
ignited Dec. 7, 1998, and three after- 
burners were later installed to control 
12 kilns. The improvement in air 
quality was so dramatic that some 
Mountain View residents thought the 
plant had shut down because the 
smoke had disappeared. A test 
supervised by DNR in July 1999 
showed that the afterburners now 
easily meet the emission limits estab- 
lished by the charcoal rule. The 
pictures above show the difference 
between charcoal facilities with these 
controls and those without. 

The Small Business 
Compliance Advisory 

Section 507 of the 1990 Clean Air Act 
Amendments requires states to 
implement a three-component 
program to assist small businesses in 
complying with the air regulations. 
This is commonly called the small 
business assistance program. The 
three components consist of the small 

business ombudsman, the technical 
assistance function to small busi- 
nesses and the compliance advisory 
panel. In Missouri, the compliance 
advisory panel is known as the Small 
Business Compliance Advisory 
Committee (SBCAC). 

The SBCAC is comprised of seven 
members: Two are appointed by the 
governor, one each is appointed by 
the majority and minority leaders of 
the House and Senate, and one is 
appointed by the director of the 
Department of Natural Resources. 
The SBCAC has the following respon- 

• Receive reports of the small business 
ombudsman of the governor's office; 

• Evaluate the impact of the Air 
Conservation Law and related rules 
on small business; 

• Review and assess the impact of 
enforcement policies on small busi- 
ness operations; 

• Recommend to DNR, the MACC 
and the General Assembly changes 
in procedure, rule or law that 
would facilitate small business 
compliance with the Air Conserva- 
tion Law; 

• Recommend to the MACC rules for 
expedited review of modifications 
for small business; 

• Conduct hearings, determine facts 
and make investigations consistent 
with the purposes of the small busi- 
ness technical assistance activity 
conducted under Section 643.173 

Currently there are four individuals 
serving on the SBCAC: Bruce 
Morrison, chairman, St. Louis; Jack 
Lonsinger, vice-chairman, Excelsior 
Springs; Joel Braun, Fenton; Caroline 
Pufalt, St. Louis; and Walter Pearson 
of DNR. The committee began 
meeting in 1998 to become familiar 
with the environmental issues that 
small businesses face. 

The small business technical assistance 
activity is performed in the Technical 
Assistance Program (TAP), a non- 
regulatory service of DNR. TAP's 
business assistance unit carries out the 
activities and provides administrative 
support to the SBCAC. TAP's mission 
is to provide information, assistance, 
education and training to business 
owners, farmers, local governments 
and the general public on how to 
control or reduce pollution. For more 
information, you can contact DNR's 
Technical Assistance Program at 1-800- 
361-4827 or (573) 526-6627. 


A Quarter Century 
in Retrospect 

Since the creation of the Missouri 
Department of Natural 
Resources' Air Pollution 
Control Program, the state has seen 
dramatic changes in its air quality. 
Many of the air pollution problems 
that once loomed over Missouri's 
communities are now faded 
memories. Some of these problems, 
however, will continue to challenge 
us into the new millennium. Randy 
Raymond, chief of the Air Pollution 
Control Program's Permitting 
Section, has been with the program 
since its creation, and recalls some of 
the high and low points in Missouri's 
air quality. 

Air Quality: A 
Brief History 

While St. Louis and Kansas City 
continue efforts to reduce ozone 
levels during hot summer months, 
overall air quality in these areas has 
improved dramatically. As recently 
as the mid-1970s, an area of St. Louis 
surrounding the 1-270 loop exceeded 
federal standards for carbon 
monoxide. Another area of south St. 
Louis was dubbed the "hot spot," 
exceeding federal standards for not 
only ozone, but particulate matter 
and sulfur dioxide as well. Sulfur 
dioxide emissions came primarily 
from two industrial sources, and 
caused many people in the area to 
experience throat irritation. Some 
reported a taste in their mouth 
similar to holding a penny on the 
tongue. On humid days, these 

emissions were so severe that DNR 
received complaints from women 
who said their pantyhose were 
deteriorating from the air pollutants. 
Kansas City struggled with many of 
these same problems in the 1970s, 
being classified as a nonattainment 
area for both ozone and particulate 
matter. High levels of airborne lead 
also plagued many areas of Missouri. 
Lead production and the use of 
leaded fuels contributed to the 
prevalence of this dangerous 

Taking the Dirt 
Out of Our Air 

Many of the problems experienced by 
Missouri in the 1970s were addressed 
by the federal Clean Air Act 
Amendments of 1977. New 
standards were established for carbon 
monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate 
matter, ozone and lead. The APCP 
began examining methods for 
bringing these problems under 
control. The state published rules 
creating the Prevention of Significant 
Deterioration permitting process to 
reduce particulate matter. New sulfur 
emissions limits were established for 
power plants. The EPA phased lead 
out of gasoline, which not only 
reduced airborne lead exposure, but 
also allowed the use of catalytic 
converters. Stage II Vapor Recovery 
Systems were implemented at 
gasoline stations in St. Louis to help 
curb ozone problems. High ozone 
levels in St. Louis also prompted the 


Missouri Air 
Quality History 

area's first vehicle emissions 
inspection and maintenance program. 
Early controls were placed on 
charcoal kilns, although significant 
progress wouldn't begin until 1998. 

Large changes were also made in 
enforcement in the last 25 years. 
Enforcement once consisted only of 
conference conciliation, persuasion 
and technical assistance. While the 
program still relies upon conference 
conciliation and persuasion 
whenever possible and continues to 
provide technical assistance, penalties 
can now be collected as well. 
Although penalties were not collected 
as recently as the mid-1980s, the 
APCP collected more than $500,000 in 
penalties in 1995 and 1998. 

Friendly Business 

Throughout changes in regulations, 
the APCP has made special efforts to 
assist businesses wanting to locate in 
Missouri. Steps have been taken to 
make sure that these facilities are as 
clean and efficient as possible. 
Opening of the General Motors plant 
in Wentzville required diligent work 
between industry and program 
representatives. The Kingsford 
Charcoal facility in Belle remains one 
of the company's cleanest facilities in 
the country. In its production of 
charcoal, the Kingsford facility uses 
sawdust that might otherwise go to 
waste and add to air and water 
pollution problems. New forms of 
power have also come to Missouri. 
The opening of the Callaway Nuclear 
Power Plant marked a major 
milestone in the effort to move 
toward cleaner energy sources. 
Looking toward the future of electric 
power, Associated Electric has 
established twin natural gas-fired 
turbines in southeast Missouri. 

Review of Archer-Daniels-Midland's 
soybean oil extraction process of 
North Kansas City, Associated 
Electric's natural gas-fired combined 
cycle turbines in southeastern 
Missouri, and most recently the 
Kansas City Power and Light's coal- 
fired power plant in Kansas City, also 
set the standard for businesses 
nationally. Important Best Available 
Control Technology (BACT) analyses 
resulted from the review of these 
projects. Issuance of a BACT is the 
result of a major permitting effort, 
and is similar to adopting a 
regulation nationwide. When the 
state sets a BACT emission limit, new 
sources that construct anywhere in 
the nation must operate within that 
limit or justify why they cannot. 
Permitting of these facilities in 
Missouri raised the bar for similar 
facilities across the country. 

Take a Deep Breath 

The state still has much work to do. 
Charcoal kilns have only recently 
come under regulation, and St. Louis 
continues to fight its ozone problem. 
However, Missouri has cleaned up 
high levels of carbon monoxide and 
sulfur dioxide. Kansas City is no 
longer a nonattainment area for 
ozone. Significant reductions have 
been made in airborne lead, although 
exceedances of the lead standard are 
still monitored near the lead smelter 
in Herculaneum. Providing clean air 
is an important goal for Missouri. 
Not only does it improve the quality 
of life for Missouri residents, but it 
also encourages economic 
development. It is much easier for a 
state to attract high-paying, high- 
technology companies when the 
quality of the state's environment is 
the very best available. 

1970: Congress passes Clean Air 
Act; authorizes the EPA to establish 
national air quality standards. 

1977: Federal government adopts 
1977 Clean Air Act Amendments; 
areas with serious air quality 
problems are given more time to 
comply with standards. 

1984: State implements first 
automobile emissions inspection 
program in St. Louis. 


1989: Stage II Vapor Recovery 
System adopted for St. Louis; gas 
nozzles re-designed to catch 
gasoline vapors. 

1990: Federal government adopts 
1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, 
which improve enforcement and 
permitting programs and take 
significant steps toward reducing 
urban smog, acid rain and toxic air 

1992: Kansas City attains federal 
standard for ozone. 

1994: Missouri General Assembly 
passes bill establishing enhanced 
automobile emissions inspection 
program for St. Louis area. 

1997: The EPA establishes new 
health-based standards for ground- 
level ozone and particulate matter. 

1998: Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission adopts regulation to 
phase-in control of charcoal kiln 

1999: Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission adopts amendments 
to odor regulations for Class 1A 
Concentrated Animal Feeding 
Operations. Federal RFG is 
introduced in St. Louis. 

- 7 - 

Other Air 

In addition to the six criteria 
pollutants, DNR's APCP also 
regulates other pollutants, 
including asbestos and 
hazardous air pollutants. 


Asbestos is a naturally 
occurring mineral that takes 
the form of hollow 
microscopic fibers. Before it 
was recognized as a 
carcinogen, asbestos was 
widely used for insulation 
and fireproofing. With age, it 
breaks down and becomes a 
hazard to anyone who 
breathes its airborne fibers. 
Federal and state laws 
regulate the removal of 
asbestos from buildings and 
DNR monitors these 


Some air pollutants can 
cause quick and painful 
death, cancer, reproductive 
disorders and environmental 
damage such as acid rain. 
The EPA has designated 
these pollutants as 
hazardous air pollutants, 
which may present a hazard 
to public health and safety if 
released in sufficient 

ajor Air Pollutant 

The benchmarks for clean air in 
Missouri are the National 
Ambient (outdoor) Air Quality 
Standards (NAAQS) established by 
the EPA under the Clean Air Act. The 
standards address six "criteria 
pollutants'' considered harmful to 
public health and the environment: 
ozone, lead, inhalable particles, 
carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide 
and sulfur dioxide. These standards 
are found on page 11. 

level ozone is a colorless gas, the most 
harmful part of what we commonly 
know as "smog." Ozone is not 
directly emitted. It forms on sunny 
hot summer days when sunlight 
causes a reaction between volatile 
organic compounds (VOCs) and 
nitrogen oxides (NOx). Vehicles, 
power plants and industrial boilers 
are common sources of nitrogen 
oxides. Gasoline powered vehicles 
are a major source of VOCs. 

"Good up high - bad nearby" 
There are two types of ozone: 
stratospheric (upper atmosphere) and 
ground-level ozone. Ozone in the 
stratosphere occurs naturally and is 
desirable, shielding the earth from 
ultraviolet rays. But ozone at ground 
level is a powerful respiratory irritant. 

AIRBORNE LEAD: In Missouri, 
airborne lead and its compounds are 
produced mainly by lead smelters. 
Children under six are the most 
endangered by airborne lead, so the 
standard has been established to 
protect their health. In 1985, 73 
percent of airborne lead came from 
vehicle exhaust pipes. This dropped 
to 34 percent by 1988 due to federal 

controls on gasoline that started in the 

particles include airborne dust, 
pollen, soot and aerosol sprays. 
Scientists also sometimes refer to 
these as "particulate matter." Current 
federal standards apply to particles 
less than 10 microns in diameter, or 
PMio, emitted mainly by vehicles, 
industry and farms. Wind and 
rainfall cause seasonal variations in 
PMio. In 1997, the EPA set new 
standards for even finer particles less 
than 2.5 microns in diameter, or PM2.5 
(see page 9). 

monoxide (CO), formed by the 
incomplete combustion of fuel, is a 
most common pollutant. More than 
75 percent of CO emissions come 
from vehicle exhaust and the highest 
concentrations are caused by 
congestion in metropolitan areas. 
Though deadly, CO is transformed 
rapidly into carbon dioxide. 

nitrogen dioxide is man-made. If fuel 
is burned above 1200 degrees 
Fahrenheit, airborne nitrogen forms 
highly reactive nitrogen oxides such 
as nitrogen dioxide. Principal sources 
are power plants, industrial boilers 
and vehicles. 

SULFUR DIOXIDE: Sulfur oxides 
are produced by burning sulfur- 
containing fuels such as coal and oil, 
by smelting metals and by other 
industrial processes. Sulfur dioxide 
(SO2) composes about 95 percent of 
these gases. 


Health Effects of Air Pollution 


Health Effects 

OZONE: A colorless gas, the 
most harmful part of what we 
commonly call "smog." 

Throat irritation, congestion, chest pains, nausea and labored breathing. 
Aggravation of existing lung or heart conditions, allergies and asthma-. 
Ozone is especially harmful to those who work or play outside. Ozone is 
also harmful to plant life, damaging forests and reducing crop yields. 

LEAD: Compounds of lead 
emitted as particles or fumes. 

Low doses damage the central nervous system of fetuses and children, 
causing seizures, mental retardation and behavioral disorders. In children 
and adults lead causes fatigue, disturbed sleep, decreased fitness, and 
damage to kidneys, liver and blood-forming organs. High levels damage 
the nervous system and cause seizures, coma and death. 


(PMio): Abroad class of particles 
10 micrometers or smaller in 
diameter, that may include 
airborne soot, dust, pollen and 
aerosol sprays. 

Increased likelihood of chronic or acute respiratory illness. Difficulty 
breathing, aggravation of existing respiratory or cardiovascular illness and 
lung damage. 


(PM"): Includes a broad class of 

Urtl 11 L1L.1U11 Lc lei & Ul 

smaller in diameter, such as 
metals, elemental carbon, 
condensed aerosols, nitrates and 

OLlllcllcS, a j Well a j UllLcl 

compounds specific to certain 
areas of the country. 

Results in respiratory problems such as hoarseness, sore throat, wheeze, 
chest pain, loss of lung flexibility and reduction of lung function. Increased 

r~\of <^>ti H 1 tc\y tnp H pt^p 1 nnm pn t nr rnrr^nir InriO" Hicc»£icc» Tn ic Ham^cc* f o f hp 
UU Lcl LLldl 1U1 11 Lc UcVclUUllLclLL Ul L.1L1U1L1L. ILllLfcL Ul&CClot:. 1 1 Llt> LlClllLcliit; IU 11 Lc 

lungs can lead to episodic short-term illnesses, increasing the number of 
school absences, lost work days, hospital admissions and respiratory- 
related deaths. 


odorless, colorless, tasteless, 
poisonous gas. 

TmT>piirprl ^^iqioti pinrl mpinnpil Hpvfprif^^ \\tc*z\ Vtipqq pinH mpnfpil HiiIItipqq At" 

lllLUCillCU- V lalUl L Cll LU 11 LCil LLACil U.CA.lCllly, VV CCiJVL LCOO Cll LU llLClLlCil U LA111 LCOO. ri I 

high levels: vomiting, fast pulse and breathing, followed by slow pulse and 
breathing, then collapse and unconsciousness. 


poisonous, reddish-brown to dark 
brown gas with an irritating odor. 

Lung inflammation and lower resistance to infections like bronchitis and 
pneumonia. Suspected of causing acute respiratory diseases in children. 

SI IT FUR DTOXTDF* A rnlnrlp^ 

JULil U±\. L/1WA1L/ ri LU1U11C55 

gas with a strong suffocating odor. 

Twi \"Z\ \\ cw\ nf firm^t - pitiH limcrc TA^ifn H i rri c\ 1 1 \\j in nyp^ f n i n cr A cy ctvtwj cw\ nf 

11 11 Id HULL Ul llLlUdl Cll \\X lLLlLiil5 VV1LLL U1111L. Lilly 111 Ul Cdll Lll Lii. -fA.ti iil Cl V Cl 11U1 L Ul 

existing respiratory or cardiovascular illness. 

chemicals classified by their 
hazardous health effects. 

May cause cancer, reproductive disorders and death. 

ASBESTOS: Densely packed 
microscopic fibers, once used for 
insulation and fireproofing. 

Lung cancer, asbestosis (a progressive irreversible scarring of the lungs) and 
mesothelioma (cancer of the chest cavity's lining). 

- 9 - 

ean Air Standard 

The Clean Air Act established 
two types of national air 
quality standards. Primary 
standards were established to protect 
public health, including the health of 
"sensitive" populations such as 
children, elderly and those with 
respiratory illnesses. Secondary 
standards set limits to protect public 
welfare, including protection against 
decreased visibility, damage to 
animals, crops, vegetation and 

New Standards 

In 1997, the EPA established new 
health-based standards for ground- 
level ozone and particulate matter. 
The standards were established after 
extensive scientific reviews showed 
that the changes were necessary to 
protect public health and the 
environment. However, the new 
ozone standards were challenged in 
court. In May 1999, the U.S. Court of 
Appeals for the District of Columbia 
Circuit declared that the new ozone 
standards were not enforceable. 

Fine Particulate Matter 

In revising the air quality standards, 
the EPA created new standards for 
PM2.5 (fine particulate matter less than 

2.5 microns in diameter). The EPA' s 
scientific review concluded that fine 
particles, which penetrate deeply into 
the lungs, are more damaging to 
human health than the coarse particles 
known as PM10. The EPA also 
modified the 24-hour PM10 (fine 
particulate matter less than 10 microns 
in diameter) standard to be based on a 
three-year average of the 99th 
percentile of data. These standards 
are listed in the table on page 11. 

Air Quality Monitors in 

In 1999, the Missouri Air Pollution 
Monitoring Network included 111 
monitors of three types: national 
monitors, state and local agency 
monitors and special-purpose 
monitors. National monitors provide 
data on national trends. State and 
local agencies operate other 
permanent monitors. Special-purpose 
monitors are placed for a limited time 
to study small areas or special sites. 
The monitors are placed to gather 
representative data as well as worst- 
case occurrences. There are also 44 
meteorological monitors in operation 
throughout the state. The data 
collected at these monitors are used 
for analysis and modeling purposes. 

National Ambient Air Quality Standards 

Criteria Air 

Averaging Time 




Eight-hour maximum 3 
One-hour maximum 11 

9ppm d 
(10 mg/m3) c 

35 ppm d 
(40 mg/m3) c 




Maximum Quarterly Arithmetic Mean 

1.5 mg/m3 c 

Same As 

Nitrogen Dioxide 

Annual Arithmetic Mean 

0.05 ppm d 
(100 mg/m3) c 

Same As 


One-hour average b 

0.12 ppm d 
(235 mg/m3) c 

Same As 

Particulate Matter 

Annual Arithmetic Mean 
24-hour average f 

50 mg/m3 c 
150 mg/m3 c 

Same As 

Particulate Matter 
(PM 2 . 5 ) 

Annual Arithmetic Mean g 
24-hour average h 

15 mg/m3 c 
65 mg/ m3 c 

Same As 

Sulfur Dioxide 

Annual Arithmetic Mean 
24-hour maximum 3 
Three-hour maximum 11 

0.03 ppm d 
(80 mg/m3) c 

0.14 ppm d 
(365 mg/m3) c 

0.5 ppm d 
(1300 mg/m3) c 

a Not to be exceeded more than once a year for primary e g/ m^ = micrograms per cubic meter. 

and secondary standards. ^ Established for a three-year average of the 99th 
k Not to be exceeded more than once a year for primary percentile of data. 

and secondary standards. § Established for a three-year average. 

c mg/ m^ = milligrams per cubic meter. n Established for a three-year average of the 98th 
d ppm = part per million. percentile of data. 

- 11 - 


01 South 759 Hwy St Joseph 

02 St. Joseph Levee 

03 12th and Mitchell St Joseph 

04 El Dorado Springs 

05 Watkins Mill State Park 

06 Hwy 33 & County Home Liberty 

07 North Kansas City 

08 Sugar Creek 

09 Schuylkill Metals West 

10 Mountain View 

11 Hogan 

12 Dunn 

13 Tindell 

14 Hogan Mountain 

15 Carthage Stone 

1 6 Dunklin High School Herculaneum 

1 7 Arnold Tenbrook & Tenbrook 

18 Herculaneum 

19 Festus 

20 Lincoln South 

21 Lincoln North 

22 Mark Twain State Park 

23 Hwy 94 West Alton 

24 Orchard Farm 

25 Bonne Terre 

26 Ste Genevieve 

Air Quality Monitoring Sites in Missouri 



^ Schuyler 







44 4580 S Lindbergh Affton 

45 305 Weidman Rd Queeny Park 

46 77 Hunter Ave Clayton 

47 55 Hunter Ave Clayton 

48 3400 Pershall Rd 

49 10267 St Charles Rock Rd 


27 2600 NEParvinRd 

28 49th & Winchester WOF 

29 724Troost 

30 27th & Van Brunt 

31 Richards Gebaur AFB 

32 4928 Main Street 

33 800 Broadway 

34 1517 Locust 

35 1 1500 North 71 Hwy KCI 


36 14th & Market 

37 8227 S Broadway & Hurck 

38 1122 Clark & Tucker 

39 Newstead & Cote Brilliant 

40 10th & Washington 

41 Hall Street & Carrie 

42 Blair Street 

43 Margaretta 


50 5012 S Charleston 

51 Southwest MO State 

52 Hillcrest School 

53 James River South 


Missouri Department 
of Natural Resources 

Air Pollution Control Program 


When printing choose landscape mode for paper orientation. 

- 13 - 

issouri's Air Quali 

Two exceptions to good air 
quality in Missouri are the St. 
Louis area during the summer 
and one spot in east Missouri. The St. 
Louis area has repeatedly exceeded 
the ozone standard and is designated 
by the EPA as a moderate-level 
nonattainment area for ozone. This 
area includes the city of St. Louis and 
Franklin, Jefferson, St. Charles and St. 
Louis counties (see page 17), as well 
as Madison, Monroe and St. Clair 
counties in Illinois. A small area near 
a lead smelter in Jefferson County 
still exceeds federal standards for 
airborne lead (see page 22). 

Air Quality Trends 

The department monitors air 
concentrations of the six criteria 
pollutants at selected locations 
throughout the state. Missouri is 
monitoring attainment of the air 
quality standards in most areas. 

The graphs below are representative 
of general trends of ambient air data 
from four pollutants including CO, 
N0 2 , S0 2 and PMi . The overall trend 
as shown by the four graphs is 
improved air quality. 

Air Quality Trends at 
Selected Locations 



South Lindbergh, Affton 1991-99 

Standard = .05 ppm* 

(parts per million)* 


i n 1 i n 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 

2nd 8-hr MAX, ppm 
St. Charles Rock Road, St. Ann 1991-99 

Standard = .9 ppm* 

(parts per million)* 

■ ii n rr-n 

i i i i i i i i i 


91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 

2nd 24-hr MAX, ppm 
South Charleston, Springfield 1991-99 


Standard = .14 ppm* 

(parts per million)* 

T ^ |r | ■ 

ill n rrp 

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 

MEAN, ppm 

St. Joseph, Missouri 1991-99 

Standard = 50 Ug/lTl3* (micro grams per cubic meter)* 


iii i n 
mi i ii 

I I II I I 1 

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 

- 14 - 

Emission Trends 

The graphs at right show the total 
emissions of the criteria and 
hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that 
Missouri facilities reported for the 
years 1994 to 1998. As shown in 
Table 1, Missouri facilities continued 
to reduce emissions of certain 
pollutants into the air. 

Facilities have generally reported 
decreased emissions of PMio, SO2, 
NO2 and HAPs. The reduction in 
sulfur dioxide emissions was 
particularly significant, with a 51 
percent decline since 1992. This may 
be due to the use of low-sulfur coal 
and conversion to cleaner-burning 
natural gas. New emission factors 
affecting the lead mining industry 
have resulted in a lead reduction of 
44 percent. Industries have also 
reported a 12 percent decline in the 
emission of NO2. 

Annual Reported 



w 95 
$ 96 




10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 
Tons Per Year 

200,000 400,000 600,000 
Tons Per Year 


50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 
Tons Per Year 

20,000 40,000 60,000 
Tons Per Year 


Since 1993, facilities have seen PM10 
emissions reduced by 50 percent, 
while VOC emissions have dropped 
by 35 percent. Although the 1998 
HAPs emissions being reported have 
increased by 48 percent from the 
previous year, this is primarily due to 
the fact that companies are now 
including HAPs in their responses to 
Emissions Inventory Questionnaires. 
Emissions of CO have remained 
about the same. 

Records show an increase in the 
number of emission sources from 
approximately 1,800 in 1992 to more 
than 2,500 in 1998. Although 
economic development probably 
played a role, this is also partially a 
result of new standards affecting 
additional sources. 


40,000 60,000 80,000 
Tons Per Year 


100,000 120,000 

200 300 400 
Tons Per Year 

Total Emissions 



Tons Per Year 



200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,0001,200,000 
Tons Per Year 



zone in misso 


Naturally occurring ozone in 
the upper atmosphere 
protects the earth from the 
sun's harmful rays. But ground-level 
ozone is an irritant that damages lung 
tissue and aggravates respiratory 
disease. Ground-level ozone is 
formed when heat and sunlight mix 
with volatile organic compounds 
(VOC) and nitrogen oxide emissions 
in the lower atmosphere. People 
show various respiratory symptoms 
upon exposure to ozone. New data 
indicate that even healthy young 
adults may experience respiratory 
problems at ozone levels as low as .08 
parts-per-million (ppm) if they 
remain outdoors for extended 
periods. This could include 
individuals whose jobs require a 
great deal of time outdoors, such as 
road construction workers, or even 
individuals working in their lawns or 
gardens. However, persons most 
susceptible to ozone include children, 

the elderly and individuals with 
pre-existing respiratory problems. 

Number of Ozone Site 
Exceed ances Reported 

Approximately 4 million of 
Missouri's 5.4 million residents live in 
St. Louis and Kansas City where the 
likelihood of ozone formation is 
greatest. The National Ambient Air 
Quality Standard of .12 ppm is often 
exceeded on hot, sunny summer 
days. The number of days the 
standard is exceeded in a given year 
generally reflects both weather 
conditions and the pollutants in the 
area's air. 

In 1999, the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area reported 13 
exceedances of the one-hour ozone 
standard. For the first time in several 
years, however, no exceedances were 
reported in Kansas City. 

Ozone Site Exceedances 

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 


Under the Clean Air Act, the 
EPA has designated many 
areas in the country as 
nonattainment for at least one criteria 
pollutant. Areas not in compliance 
with the ozone standard are classified 
marginal, moderate, serious, severe 
or extreme in their levels of 
nonattainment. The St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area is one of six areas 
nationwide currently classified as a 
"moderate " nonattainment area. 

The St. Louis moderate nonattainment 
area includes the city of St. Louis and 
the counties of St. Charles, St. Louis, 
Jefferson and Franklin. The Illinois 
side includes Madison, Monroe and St. 
Clair counties. The map on the right 
shows the sites for air monitors in the 
nonattainment area. The chart below 
shows the number of days health- 
based ozone standards were actually 
exceeded, in comparison to the 
number of days weather conditions 
were favorable to ozone exceedances. 

St. Louis Ozone Nonattainment Area Monitoring Sites 

Site Number Site Name 

Site Number Site Name 




Arnold Tenbrook, Arnold 
West Alton 
Orchard Farm 

4580 S. Lindberghand Gravois, Affton 
305 Weidman Rd., Queeny Park 
55 Hunter Ave., Clayton 
3400 Pershall Rd., Ferguson 
10267 St. Charles, St. Ann 
8227 S. Broadway, St. Louis 
1122 Clark, St. Louis 
Newstead and Cote Brilliante 


12 409 Main St., Alton 

13 200 W. Division, Maryville 

14 Poag Road, Edwardsville 

15 54 N. Walcott, Wood River 

16 1 3th and Tudor, E. St. Louis 

St. Louis Nonattainment Area 1-Hour Ozone 1977 - 1999 
# of Exceedances vs Conducive Days 



■# of Exceedances 
-# of Conducive Days 


* Temperatures > 85 degrees Fahrenheit 

* Wind speeds < 10 miles per hour 

* Solar Radiation of 500 L or better 

* Little or no daytime Precipitation 

* Winds from southeast to west 

- 17 - 

Number of Days with Excessive Ozone 

St. Louis exceeded the ozone standard each summer between 1996 and 1999. 
The table below shows the number of days that sites in Missouri and Illinois 
reported exceeding the ozone standard. The St. Louis ozone nonattainment area 
reported 13 exceedances of the one-hour standard during the 1999 ozone season 
(April 1 through October 31). Missouri had 11 exceedances; Illinois had two. 

Number of Days with Excessive Ozor 

St. Louis Nonattainment Area 


# of 1-Hour Exceedances 

A H H rpec 









St. Louis 

A rn nl H 

AmnlH p»riH Tlp'nVir'nnk 

ill 1 IL71CI Cl 1 Id J.C1 LUIUVJJS. 




Wpct Alton 

T-Ticrh wav Q4. 
iiiiiiLVVciy y± 


f")"lvVl 7\ Tc\ "P TTY\ 
1 Li L cl 1 j. cilllL 


^t" T oi lie 

OZ.Z. / Ul UCLH vv ci y 





^t" T oi lie 

119? Clark and Tnrkpr 



St. Louis 

Newstead & Cote Brilliante 





S. Lindbergh 









Queeny Park 

305 Weidman 






55 Hunter Avenue 








3400 Pershall Road 







St. Ann 

10267 St. Charles Rock Road 




















409 Main Street 







200 West Division 






Poag Road 




Wood River 

54 North Walcott 






East St. Louis 

13th and Tudor 




St. Louis Nonattainment Total 












Missouri's State 
Implementation Plan (SIP) for 
St. Louis includes control 
measures and schedules for 
compliance with the Clean Air Act in 
order to attain the ozone standard. To 
reduce ambient ozone concentrations 
to safe levels, the state must control 
industrial and mobile sources of 
volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 
Major control measures in St. Louis 
include a vehicle emissions inspection 
and maintenance program, Stage II 
vapor recovery systems for gasoline 
refueling, emission control systems for 
existing and new industrial sources 
and some contingency measures in 
case the mandatory controls fail to 
attain the standard. Two control 
strategies leading to the greatest 
reductions in volatile organic 
compound emissions are enhanced 
vehicle inspection and maintenance 
and the use of reformulated gasoline. 

Vehicle Emissions 

The program for vehicle emissions 
testing and repair, or Inspection and 
Maintenance (I/M), is a key 
mechanism for controlling mobile 
source emissions in the St. Louis area. 
This program represents a large 
portion of DNR's state implementation 
plan to bring St. Louis into compliance 
with the National Ambient Air Quality 
Standards (NAAQS) for ozone, or 
urban smog. 

During 1999, the state continued 
testing vehicles using the existing basic 
emissions program that was part of the 
annual safety inspection conducted at 
local car service facilities every year. 
This year, the state also made 
significant progress toward the start of 
an enhanced I/M program. 

In February 1999, DNR signed a 
contract with Environmental Systems 
Products Inc. (ESP Missouri) to 
implement a new enhanced I/M 

program in the St. Louis nonattainment 
area. The new program, called the 
Gateway Clean Air Program (GCAP), 
was formally launched in 1999 with the 
announcement of the testing site 
locations and is to begin in April 2000. 

GCAP will incorporate two new 
emissions testing technologies. The 
enhanced test simulates real driving 
conditions on a chassis dynamometer 
(treadmill-like device) during testing 
and measures specific pollutants from 
vehicles much more precisely than the 
current system. Stations performing 
this test cannot offer repair services. 
The second test, called RapidScreen, 
uses a remote sensing device to 
monitor exhaust emissions while 
vehicles are being driven on roads and 
highways. RapidScreen will allow the 
very cleanest-running vehicles to pass 
the new emissions test without visiting 
emissions testing stations. 

Under contract, ESP Missouri will 
build and operate a network of 12 
emissions testing stations in the St. 
Louis area. The sites form a network 
throughout the St. Louis nonattainment 
area to maximize convenient access for 
motorists. In 1999, the contractor 
began construction of testing stations 
and started to collect preliminary 
emissions data with remote sensing 
technology as a basis for on-road 
RapidScreen of vehicles in early 2000. 

Low Reid Vapor Pressure 
Gasoline and 
Reformulated Gasoline 

Many Volatile Organic Compound 
(VOC) control measures have been 
used in the effort to reach attainment of 
the ozone standard. In 1994, low vapor 
pressure gasoline was implemented in 
St. Louis. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) is 
a measure of the volatility of gasoline 
or its tendency to evaporate into the air. 
Lowering RVP reduces evaporative 
emissions of gasoline. Between 1994 
and 1998, a state regulation restricted 
the RVP of gasoline sold in the St. 
Louis nonattainment area during the 
warmest months of the year, June 1 
through Sept. 15. 

At the request of the Governor, federal 
Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) was 
required at the retail level for the 
Missouri portion of the St. Louis 
nonattainment area as of June 1, 1999. 
RFG has a special gasoline formula 
designed to burn cleaner than 
conventional gasoline, and to reduce 
both exhaust and evaporative 
emissions. RFG is administered and 
enforced by the EPA. 

Area Reclassification 

Moderate nonattainment areas were 
required to meet the NAAQS for ozone 
by Nov. 15, 1996. Because St. Louis 
failed to meet this goal, the area may be 
reclassified by the EPA, or "bumped 
up" in its nonattainment status from 
moderate to serious. In 1998, the EPA 
proposed a new policy that may allow 
St. Louis to obtain an attainment date 
extension. The department committed 
to meeting the requirements of the 
EPA's policy. Under the policy, DNR 
must demonstrate that St. Louis is 
affected by transported air pollution 
from upwind areas. Also, all required 
local control measures must be 
implemented and DNR must submit 
an EPA-approvable Attainment 
Demonstration showing the area will 
attain the ozone standard. 

On Nov. 12, 1999, DNR submitted a 
package of regulatory requirements to 
the EPA including the Vehicle 
Inspection and Maintenance Plan, the 
Fifteen Percent Rate-of -Progress Plan, 
the Attainment Demonstration, seven 
reasonably available control 
technology (RACT) rules and a draft 
regulation to reduce statewide 
emissions of nitrogen oxides. DNR 
expects the EPA to grant an attainment 
date extension based on the 
information submitted. One obstacle 
to the attainment date extension is a 
lawsuit filed in July 1998 by 
environmental groups against the EPA 
for failure to bump up the St. Louis 
area. Should this bump up occur, St. 
Louis would be obligated to meet the 
more stringent requirements of the 
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 for 
serious nonattainment areas. 


Ozone in Kansas 


The Kansas City Ozone Maintenance Area includes Clay, Jackson and 
Platte counties in Missouri as well as Johnson and Wyandotte counties in 
Kansas. The Kansas City area was designated as a sub-marginal 
nonattainment area under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In 1992, the 
Kansas City area demonstrated compliance with the standard and was 
redesignated to attainment. 

In 1999, Kansas City did not report any exceedances of the one-hour ozone 
standard. During the 1998 ozone season, the Kansas City area reported five 
exceedances. Four of the exceedances occurred in Missouri. One exceedance 
occurred in Kansas. The table below shows the number of days each site 
reported exceeding the ozone standard between 1989 and 1999. 

Number of Days with Excessive Ozor 

Kansas City Ozone Maintance Area 


# of 1-Hour Exceedances 














Kansas City 



Hwy 33 and County Hwy 







Watkins Mill State Park Road 



Kansas City 

49th and Winchester WOF 



Kansas City 

Richards Gebaur AFB 


Kansas City 

11500 N. 71 Hwy KCI Airport 


















Wyandotte CO 

Ann Avenue 
















The Kansas City area has 
experienced ozone problems 
since the late 1970s. In 
response to the Clean Air Act 
Amendments of 1990, DNR 
promulgated two regulations that 
reduced the Reid vapor pressure 
(RVP) of gasoline in the Kansas City 
area. RVP is a measure of the 
tendency of gasoline to evaporate 
into the air. Lowering gasoline's RVP 
reduces its evaporative emissions. 
From 1990 through 1997, the RVP of 
gasoline in Kansas City has been 
reduced on three occasions. The 
latest change occurred during the 
summer of 1997. DNR and the 
Kansas Department of Health and 

Environment both required that 7.2 
RVP gasoline be sold in the Kansas 
City Maintenance Area during the 
peak ozone season, June 1 through 
September 15. 

DNR's Air Pollution Control Program 
developed an ozone control strategy 
after working with the Mid-America 
Regional Council (MARC), the 
Kansas Department of Health and 
Environment, Kansas City local 
agencies, environmental groups and 
industrial representatives. This 
strategy was to be implemented in 
place of the contingency measures 
included in the 1992 Kansas City 
Ozone Maintenance State 
Implementation Plan. After extensive 
evaluation of control options, DNR, 
the EPA, the Kansas Department of 
Health and Environment, MARC and 
other community representatives 

selected a control strategy including 
federal RFC The Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission (MACC) 
adopted the Maintenance Plan in 
February 1998. 

RFG would have replaced low RVP 
gasoline as the fuel control strategy. 
DNR and the Kansas Department of 
Health and Environment hosted a 
Fuels Summit in June 1999. This 
summit resulted in a recommendation 
to proceed with RFG. The governors 
of Kansas and Missouri requested 
that the EPA include the Kansas City 
area in the federal RFG program at 
the end of July 1999. However, a 
lawsuit brought by the American 
Petroleum Institute against U.S. EPA 
has blocked the use of federal RFG in 
former ozone nonattainment areas, 
including Kansas City. 

- 21 - 

ad In Missou 

Lead Nonattainment 

Lead compounds can cause damage 
to the brain and nervous system. 
One site in southeast Missouri still 
exceeds federal health standards for 
airborne lead. A smelting facility is 
located at this site. The federal Clean 
Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 
states to bring all nonattainment sites 
into compliance with the lead 
standard. With the cooperation of the 
Doe Run Company, control strategies 
were developed for sites in 
Herculaneum, Buick and Glover, MO. 
The strategies used in Buick and 
Glover were successful in reducing 
airborne lead emissions. They are 
currently still classified as 

nonattainment areas, although 
neither area has registered an 
exceedance in the last eight quarters. 

Although air quality in the 
Herculaneum area has improved in 
recent years, the area continues to 
show violations of the lead standard. 
To solve this problem, the EPA has 
recommended an additional 
modeling tool be used to better 
understand the cause of these 
violations. This tool, known as 
Chemical Mass Balance Modeling, 
allows users to determine individual 
source contributions by examining 
the chemical profile, or fingerprint, of 
each source, and comparing this to 
samples collected in the ambient air. 

Lead Nonattainment Areas 

Nonattainment Area 

1 City of Herculaneum 

2 Dent Township 

3 Liberty/Arcadia Township. 

Primary Lead Emitter 

Doe Run, Herculaneum 
Doe Run, Buick 
Doe Run, Glover 

- 22 - 

Average Quarterly Concentrations of Lead in 
Ambient Air Near Lead Smelters in Missouri 

Since Missouri is the chief lead-mining district in the nation, with several smelters, the department conducts ambient 
monitoring for lead. Developed by the EPA, the health standard for lead defines the maximum safe level for human 
exposure to this otherwise useful metal. The National Ambient Air Quality Standard for lead is 1.5 micrograms per cubic 
meter, averaged from all the monitor filters in one-quarter of the year. Currently, the Herculaneum smelter is the only one 
registering exceedances of the airborne lead standard. 


Doe Run Herculaneum Smelter 
#7 Broad Street Site 

Doe Run Glover Smelter 
#5 Big Creek Site 

Health Standard = 1.5 ug/m3 




■ ■ 

95 96 97 98 

I ■ 1 st Qt □ 2nd Qtr □ 3rd Qtr ■ 4th Qtr 


1 1 st Qt □ 2nd Qtr □ 3rd Qtr ■ 4th Qtr 

Schuylkill Smelter 
West Site 

Doe Run Buick Smelter 
#1 Site 

MstQt □ 2nd Qtr □ 3rd Qtr ■ 4th Qtr 

94 95 96 97 98 99 

I ■ 1 st Qt □ 2nd Qtr □ 3rd Qtr ■ 4th Qtr I 

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national AIRS database. 

- 23 - 

Fine Particulate Matter 

PM2.5 is primarily generated from 
combustion sources. It can be 
emitted directly as particulate, or it 
can be formed from gases that are 
emitted, which combine or condense 
in the atmosphere to make particles. 
Sulfur or nitrogen compounds are 
likely to be significant in different 
areas of the country. In addition to 
the ambient monitoring currently 
being conducted, the department 
plans in the future to conduct 
sampling that could be analyzed for 
specific compounds or species of 
compounds. This would help 

determine what types of sources are 
most responsible for PM2.5 levels in 
different parts of the state. 

The time schedule for the PM2.5 
standard to be implemented and 
attained will take several years 
because a new monitoring system for 
this type of pollution must be created. 
Based on EPA guidance, Missouri has 
designed a monitoring network of 30 
monitors. By the end of 1999, 20 
monitoring sites were in operation. 
The EPA will designate area attain- 
ment by 2003 based on three years of 
gathered data beginning in 2000. 

1999 PM 25 Data Summary 

Site Name 






West Alton 












Blair Street 






Florissant Valley 
























North Kansas City 






Sugar Creek 


















Eldorado Springs 






Mark Twain State Park 






Ste . Genevieve 






SW Missouri State University 






Mountain View 






St. Joseph 






Carthage Stone 






All units are in ug/ m 3 

- 24 - 

bout The Air Pollution Control Progr 


The mission of the Department 
of Natural Resources' Air 
Pollution Control Program is 
"to maintain purity of the air 
resources of the state to protect the 
health, general welfare and physical 
property of the people, maximum 
employment and the full industrial 
development of the state/' The 
program serves the public with 
technology, planning, enforcement, 
permitting, financial and information 
services to achieve this mission. 

Technical Support 

The program's staff looks at the 
quality of the air in Missouri using 
chemistry, meteorology, mathematics 
and computer modeling. Staff 
members research the sources and 
effects of air pollution, collecting and 
maintaining an annual inventory of 
sources that give off air pollution. In 
conjunction with the Department of 
Natural Resources' Environmental 
Services Program and four local 
agencies, the Air Pollution Control 
Program staff designs and 
coordinates an air-monitoring 
network and examines monitoring 
data. The network provides air 
quality data from more than 40 
locations around the state. Using the 
monitoring data and other data on 
source emissions and the weather, the 
staff runs computer models of the 
atmosphere to predict air quality. 


The program's staff develops rules 
and plans designed to protect and 
improve Missouri's air quality. 
Public participation is a vital part of 
the cooperative process of developing 

guidelines and regulations. The staff 
works with businesses, federal, state 
and local government agencies, 
environmental groups and the public 
to exchange ideas and information on 
clean air issues with advisory groups, 
workgroups and workshops. 

The staff works closely with EPA as 
part of the national effort to improve 
air quality through the Clean Air Act. 
The staff research and study complex 
environmental issues to develop air 
pollution control strategies that will 
allow Missouri's progress toward 
achieving and maintaining healthy 
air quality improvements. These air 
pollution control strategies are 
included in the state implementation 
plan (SIP) to control specific 
pollutants. The Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission (see p. 31) 
approves the state implementation 
plan and rule actions after they have 
gone through a public hearing 
process. When the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission adopts 
rules, they become effective through 
publication in the Missouri State Code 
of Regulations. The state implemen- 
tation plan and associated rules 
adopted by the Missouri Air Conser- 
vation Commission are submitted to 
EPA for inclusion in the federally 
approved state plan. 


The program's staff reviews 
construction permit applications of 
new or modified emission sources to 
make sure that facilities minimize the 
release of air contaminants and will 
meet the requirements of the state 
and federal law and regulations. 

Operating permit applications, 
similar to business licenses, are also 
received and issued. Operating 
permits staff identifies all the air 
pollution control requirements of a 
source of air pollution. 


The program, through the 
department's regional offices, 
responds to complaints about air 
quality and help businesses comply 
with various federal, state and local 
rules. Staff conducts routine site 
inspections and oversees the testing 
of smokestacks, asbestos removal, 
gasoline vapor recovery equipment 
and other sources of air pollution. 
When a source violates an air quality 
requirement, the staff works with the 
facility to correct the problem and 
may take additional action, including 
the assessment of penalties necessary 
to obtain compliance with the 
requirement. Cases that cannot be 
resolved are referred to the Missouri 
Attorney General's office through the 
Missouri Air Conservation 


The program's staff provides 
budgeting, procurement, public 
information and personnel services. 
The staff also provides liaisons for the 
Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission, EPA, the Missouri 
Department of Health, local air 
agencies in Kansas City, St. Louis, St. 
Louis County and Springfield, the 
American Lung Association and the 
news media. 

— 29 — 

2002 Revenue by Source 




Total: $13,892,110 

2002 Revenue by Source 

The Air Pollution Control Program 
receives funds from three sources: 
general tax revenue approved by the 
Missouri General Assembly, federal 
funds from EPA and four types of 
fees collected by the program. Since 
1972, the program collected fees from 
businesses seeking permits to build 
new or modify existing emission 
sources. Since 1984, the state collected 
a fee to test the emissions of 1.2 
million motor vehicles in the city of 
St. Louis and in Franklin, Jefferson, 
St. Charles and St. Louis counties. In 
2000, an enhanced inspection 
program was initiated in all of these 
counties except Franklin, which still 
uses the basic test. Since 1993, the 
program collected an emission fee 
from air pollution sources under the 
Missouri Air Conservation Law. Since 
1989, the program collected fees to 

ensure the safe removal of asbestos; a 
cancer-causing substance of 
combined materials once used to 
insulate buildings. Funds received 
by the program are shown in the 
table above. 

Local Agencies 

A city or county may have its own air 
agency under two conditions: the city 
must be able to enforce its rules and 
its rules must be as strict as the 
state's. Local agencies issue permits, 
maintain their own monitoring 
networks and may enforce asbestos- 
removal laws. The local agencies are 
partially funded by EPA through the 
Department of Natural Resources. 
Four local governments in Missouri 
practice regional control over air 
pollution: Kansas City, St. Louis, St. 
Louis County and Springfield. 

— 30 — 

Missouri Air Conservation Commission 

Created by the Missouri General Assembly in 1965, the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission (MACC) has seven members appointed by 
the governor. The commission carries out the Missouri Air 
Conservation Law (Chapter 643, Revised Statutes of Missouri). The primary 
duty of the commission is to achieve and maintain the National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards established by the EPA. When the quality of the air meets 
these standards, an area is said to be in attainment. If monitors detect too much 
of one pollutant, however, the area is a nonattainment area for that pollutant. 

Members serve four-year terms and the commission meets at least nine times 
per year. All meetings are open to the public and comments are welcome. Most 
meetings include public hearings where rule actions, state implementation 
plans and other matters are heard. 

At meetings, the commission adopts, amends and rescinds rules; hears appeals 
of enforcement orders and permit conditions; initiates legal action to enforce 
rules; assigns duties to local air pollution control agencies; classifies regions as 
attainment or nonattainment areas and approves plans to meet national 
standards in nonattainment areas. 

Notices of public hearings are published in the public-notice sections of these 
newspapers: Columbia Daily Tribune, Poplar Bluff Daily American Republic, Springfield 
News-Leader, The Kansas City Star, St. Joseph News Press, St. Louis Post-Dispatch and 
the Kirksville Daily Express. Proposed rules are published in the Missouri Register. 
To be placed on a mailing list to receive notice of public hearings and meetings, 
you may contact the Air Pollution Control Program at (573) 751-4817. 

Information on public hearings and Missouri Air Conservation Commission 
meetings is also available on our home page at ( dnr/ apcp). 

Mel Carnahan 

State of Missouri 

1999 Missouri 
Air Conservation 

Barry Kayes 


David Zimmermann 


Harriet Beard 
Frank Beller 
Joanne Collins 
Andy Farmer 
Michael Foresman 

Steve Mahf ood 

Department of 
Natural Resources 

John Young 

Division of 
Environmental Quality 

Roger D. Randolph 
Air Pollution 
Control Program 

MACC members, left to right: Frank 
Beller, Harriet Beard, Andy Farmer, 
Joanne Collins, David Zimmermann, 
and Barry Kayes. Not pictured: Michael 

- 27 - 

State Implementation 
Plan/ Air Quality Plans 

DNR's Air Pollution Control Program 
submits rules to the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission (MACC) 
and writes the State Implementation 
Plan and air quality plans that 
indicate how Missouri will achieve 
and maintain the federal standards 
for ozone and other pollutants. 

The State Implementation Plan is the 
primary method for achieving 
National Ambient Air Quality 
Standards (NAAQS) for compliance 
with the Clean Air Act. Distinct air 
quality plans are developed for 
specific air pollutants. Whenever 
concentrations of one of these 
pollutants exceed federal standards a 
plan is developed to bring the 
concentration into compliance. Plan 
development includes a new 
inventory of emission levels, 
computer modeling of emissions' 
sources and the effects of emission 
sources, control strategies and 
regulatory requirements or rules. 

Another type of air quality plan, 
called a "State Plan/' also involves an 
emission inventory, controls and 
rules, but addresses emission source 
types as well as specific pollutants. 

The MACC adopted the following 
four plan actions in 1999: 

Section 111(d) and 129 Plan for 
Implementing the Hospital, 
Medical/Infectious Waste 
Incinerator Emission Guidelines 
for Missouri 

This new statewide plan implements 
the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency's (EPA) New Source 

Performance Standards and 
Emissions Guidelines for hospital 
and medical /infectious waste 

Fifteen Percent Rate-of-Progress 
Plan* (St. Louis Ozone 
Nonattainment Area) 

This revised plan incorporated recent 
amendments to volatile organic 
compound regulations, added 
reformulated gasoline and amended 
the portions of the plan related to the 
enhanced vehicle inspection and 
maintenance program. 

Inspection/Maintenance Plan* (St. 
Louis Ozone Nonattainment Area) 

This revised plan addressed all the 
issues that the U.S. EPA raised on the 
first submittal of the revised plan 
during August 1997. It includes a 
signed inspection /maintenance 
contract, signed Memorandums of 
Understanding with the Missouri 
State Highway Patrol and the 
Missouri Department of Revenue, an 
amended inspection /maintenance 
rule, proof of funding and a 
description of the 
inspection /maintenance program. 

Attainment Demonstration Plan* 
(St. Louis Ozone Nonattainment 

This revised plan documented and 
summarized the results of air quality 
modeling used to determine the 
impact of local and regional air 
pollution control measures on ozone 

*These plans are part of the Missouri 
State Implementation Plan 

1999 Rules Update 

In 1999, the Missouri Air Conservation Commission adopted 28 rule actions. All state rules can be viewed at csr/ csr.htm. The following list highlights a few of the most significant rules adopted: 

10 CSR 10-3.090 

Rpstrirtion of Emission of 

Under this rule amendment, Class 1 A Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations 
(CAFOs^ arp no lonfpr pxpmnt from pxistinp" odor pmission rppnilations Also Class 
1 A CAFOs are now required to prepare and implement an odor control plan at each 
facility to restrict emission of odors. This specific amendment applies to the outstate 
areas of Missouri. Identical requirements were adopted for the St. Louis, Kansas City 
and Springfield areas. 

10 CSR 10-5.510 

Control of Emissions of 
Nitrogen Oxides 

This new rule requires all major sources of nitrogen oxides within the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area to implement reasonably available control technology (RACT) as 
required by the Clean Air Act. Affected sources include, but are not limited to, boilers, 
cement kilns, large stationary internal combustion engines and combustion turbines. 

10 CSR 10-5.520 

Control of Volatile Organic 
Compound Emissions from 
Existing Major Sources 

This new rule reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds from existing major 
sources throughout the St. Louis ozone nonattainment area. Major facilities that are 
not regulated by current RACT rules are required to conduct a RACT study and 
implement the findings of that study. 

10 CSR 10-6.200 

Hospital, Medical, 
Infectious Waste 

This new rule establishes incinerator emission limits for metals, particulate matter, 
acid gases, organic compounds, carbon monoxide and opacity. The rule includes 
requirements for operator training and qualification, waste management, compliance 
and performance testing, monitoring and report/record keeping. 

10 CSR 10-6.070 

New Source Performance 

10 CSR 10-6.075 

Maximum Achievable 
Control Technology 
Regulations and 

Under Title V of the Clean Air Acts Amendments, facilities emitting regulated air 
pollutants must obtain an operating permit. The state is required to adopt all 
applicable federal standards and enforce those standards as one of the conditions in 
the operating permits program. If the state fails to comply with these requirements, 
the EPA must implement a federal operating permits program. The amendments to 10 
CSR 10-6.070 New Source Performance Regulations, 10 CSR 10-6.080 Maximum 
Achievable Control Technology Regulations and 10 CSR 10-6.080 Emission Standards 
for Hazardous Air Pollutants are a direct result of that requirement. 

10 CSR 10-6.080 

Emission Standards for 
Hazardous Air Pollutants 

Since 1980, Missouri has been granted delegation of updates to 40 CFR, Part 60 and 61 
subparts, and incorporated these updates into regulation 10 CSR 10-6.070 and 6.080. 
The state has also requested delegation of 40 CFR Part 63 subparts on an annual basis 
since 1996 for regulation 10 CSR 10-6.075. These regulations incorporate by reference 
emission standards and performance criteria for new or modified stationary sources of 
hazardous air pollutants. Additionally, these regulations shift the responsibility for 
enforcement of those federal regulations to the state. 

10 CSR 10-6.230 

Administrative Penalties 

This rule was rescinded and readopted with revised administrative penalty 
procedures that are consistent with state statutes and other Division of Environmental 
Quality administrative penalties rules. 

10 CSR 10-6.060 

Construction Permits 

This rule amendment streamlined the construction permit review process. It 
established a fixed fee for portable relocations, created a permit-by-rule exemption, 
established a negligible-emission-level exemption, aligned major reviews with federal 
regulations and clarified modeling requirements. 


ir Quality Informatio 

Missouri Department of Natural Resources 

Air Pollution Control Program (573) 751-4817 

P.O. Box 176 Jefferson City, MO 65102-0176 

Technical Assistance Program 1-800-361-4827 

General DNR Information 1-800-334-6946 

Relay Missouri (for use by the hearing impaired) 1-800-735-2966 

Jefferson City Regional Office (573) 751-2729 

Kansas City Regional Office (816) 554-4100 

Northeast Regional Office (Macon) (660) 385-2129 

St. Louis Regional Office (314) 301-7100 

Southeast Regional Office (Poplar Bluff) (573) 840-9750 

Southwest Regional Office (Springfield) (417) 891-4300 


Missouri Department of Natural Resources 

Emergencies only 24 hours a day (573) 634-2436 

Emergency Response Office weekdays (573) 526-3315 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Region VII (913) 551-7020 

National Response Center 1-800-424-8802 

(A service of the U.S. government for reporting oil and chemical spills) 

CHEMTREC 1-800-424-9300 

(A service of the chemical industry for reporting chemical spills, leaks and fires) 

Other air quality organizations: 

Missouri Department of Health (573) 751-6400 

St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership (314) 645-5505 

Heartland Sky (Kansas City) (816) 474-4240 

American Lung Association of Eastern Missouri (314) 645-5505 

American Lung Association of Western Missouri (816) 842-5242 

Kansas City Health Department (816) 513-6314 

City of St. Louis - Division of Air Pollution Control (314) 613-7300 

St. Louis County - Department of Health (314) 615-8923 

Springfield-Greene County - Air Pollution Control Authority (417) 864-1662 


Air Pollution Information 
on the Internet 

There is a wealth of information about air quality issues on the Internet. You may find some of the 
following World Wide Web addresses helpful (addresses were correct at the date of this publication): 

Missouri Department of Natural Resources 

Air Pollution Control Program ( deq/ apcp) 

Technical Assistance Program ( us /deq /tap) 

General DNR Department Information ( 

The complete Missouri Air Law ( statutes/ c643.htm) 

DNR - Air Quality Monitoring ( deq/ esp) 

Code of State Regulations ( 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 

EPA Region VII (Kansas City) ( region07/) 

Office of Air and Radiation ( 

Air Links - EPA Air Quality Publications ( airlinks/) 

Other air quality organizations: 

St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership ( 

Heartland Sky (Kansas City) ( 

American Lung Association ( 

Air and Waste Management Association ( 

Missouri Department of Health ( 

Daily Air Quality Forecasts: 

Kansas City ( 

St. Louis ( 



Attainment: The designation given to an area that meets 
all National Ambient Air Quality Standards. 

Carbon monoxide (CO): A poisonous gas that is odorless, 
colorless and tasteless. At low levels it causes impaired 
vision and manual dexterity, weakness and mental 
dullness. At high levels it may cause vomiting, fast pulse 
and breathing followed by a slow pulse and breathing, 
then collapse and unconsciousness. 

Inhalable particles (PMio and PM2.5): Abroad class of 
particles sometimes simply referred to as "soot." One of 
the "criteria pollutants, " PM10 particles are 10 microns or 
smaller in diameter. The pollutant increases the likelihood 
of chronic or acute respiratory illness. It also causes 
difficulty in breathing, aggravation of existing respiratory 
or cardiovascular illness and lung damage. In addition it 
causes decreased ability to defend against foreign 
materials. New laws have just been passed regulating 
PM2.5, an even smaller and more harmful class of fine 
particles less than 2.5 microns in diameter. Missouri is 
beginning to monitor its concentrations. 

Lead (Pb): Airborne lead appears as dust-like particles 
ranging from light gray to black. Low doses may damage 
the central nervous system of fetuses and children, causing 
seizures, mental retardation and behavioral disorders. In 
children and adults, lead causes fatigue, disturbed sleep 
and decreased fitness, and it damages the kidneys, liver 
and blood-forming organs. It is suspected of causing high 
blood pressure and heart disease. High levels damage the 
nervous system and cause seizures, comas and death. 

Missouri Air Conservation Commission: The governor 
appoints this seven-member group. The commission 
carries out the Missouri Air Conservation Law (Chapter 
643, Revised Statutes of Missouri). The primary duty of 
the commission is to help Missouri achieve the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the Environmental 
Protection Agency. 

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): 

Standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
(EPA) that limit the amount of six air pollutants allowed in 
outside air. These six are carbon monoxide, inhalable 
particles, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide. 
The limits are based on what is safe for humans to breathe. 

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2): A poisonous, reddish-brown to 
dark brown gas with an irritating odor. It can cause lung 
inflammation and can lower resistance to infections like 
bronchitis and pneumonia. It is suspected of causing acute 
respiratory disease in children. 

Nonattainment area: A region in which air monitors detect 
more of a pollutant than is allowed by the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the U.S. EPA. The 
U.S. EPA may designate a region as a "nonattainment 
area" for that pollutant. 

Ozone (O3): Three atoms of oxygen; a colorless gas with a 
pleasant odor at low concentrations. The layer of ozone in 
the atmosphere protects the earth from the sun's harmful 
rays. Ground-level ozone is a summertime hazard 
produced when hydrocarbons from car exhaust and other 
fumes mix in the presence of sunlight with oxides of 
nitrogen from power plants and other sources. Ozone is 
more easily recognized in smog, a transparent summer 
haze that hangs over urban areas. The result is a gas that 
aggravates respiratory illness, makes breathing difficult 
and damages breathing tissues. Victims include people 
with lung disease, the elderly, children and adults who 
exercise outside. 

Ozone Violation: Four or more exceedances of the federal 
ozone standard occurring in a three-year period at the 
same monitoring site. 

Reformulated Gasoline (RFG): A fuel blend designed to 
reduce air toxins and volatile organic compound (VOC) 
emissions by decreasing the amount of toxic compounds 
such as benzene, lowering the evaporation rate and 
increasing the amount of oxygenate blended with the fuel. 

State Implementation Plan (SIP): A plan submitted by the 
Missouri Department of Natural Resources to the 
Environmental Protection Agency for complying with 
national air quality standards. Each plan concerns one air 
pollutant for one nonattainment area. 

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): A colorless gas with a strong, 
suffocating odor. Causes irritation of the throat and lungs 
and difficulty in breathing. It also causes aggravation of 
existing respiratory or cardiovascular illness. 

- 32 - 

We do not inherit the Earth from our fathers, 
we are borrowing it from our children." 

David Brower 

Photo Credits: 

Cover -picture, taken at the Gasconade River in Plulaski County, and Missouri Air Conservaton Commission Photographs 

by Van Beydler, Missouri Department of Natural Resources. 

Arch photograph, page 1, by Nick Decker, Missouri Department of Natural Resources. 

Charcoal Kiln pictures, Air Quality Highlights, by Peter Yronwode, Missouri Department of Natural Resouces — 

Air Pollution Control Program . 

Missouri Department of Natural Resources 
Air Pollution Control Program 

P.O. Box 176 
Jefferson City, MO 65102-0176 

(573) 751-4817